/ Literature on Rythm in Byzantine Chant
/ Some resources

(Note: Some of the references below are copyrighted. Selected parts of publications are reproduced here at low quality for educational purposes only. I recommend buying the books as they are very valuable to have anyway).

(thanks to B. Zacharis for offering many of the scans below for everyone's benefit)

Ms EBE MPT 716
(old notation,shortly before the 3 teachers) [jpg, 2 Mb]
The oldest known evidence of rhythm division with vertical bars in Byzantine Music.

Archimandrite Chrysanthos
(one of the 3 teachers, "Mega Theoretikon", Constantinople, 1832)
[pdf, 2 Mb]

G. Lesvios,
inventor of his own learning method and notation (early 1800s)
[pdf, 400 Kb]

Th. Fokaeus,
teacher from Constantinople (Constantinople, mid 1800s)
[pdf, 80 Kb]

K. Filoksenis
"Efesiomagnes"(mid 1800s)
[pdf, 346 Kb]

Stephanos Lambadarios
of the Great Church (Constantinople, mid 1800s)
[pdf, 81 Kb]

P. Agathocles,
teacher from Argos (mid 1800s)
[jpg, 110 Kb] (from analogion.net)

In his book seems to be in favour of "by-beat" chanting, although elsewhere he supports using 2/3/4 beat bars and the use of vertical lines and rhythmic emphasis.

N. Paganas,
musicologist (Constantinople, late 1800s)
[pdf, 264 Kb]

Mousikos Syllogos
Report (directed by G. Violakis) (Constantinople, late 1800s)
[pdf, 591 Kb]

G. Violakis
Protopsaltis of the Great Church (Constantinople, late 1800s)
[pdf, 430 Kb]

G. Paxtikos,
musicologist (Constantinople, late 1800s)
[pdf, 169 Kb]

A. Tsiknopoulos
(late 1800s)
[pdf, 229 Kb]

A. Boudouris,
1st Domestichos of the Great Church (Constantinople, mid 1900s)
[pdf, 200 Kb] (only the part about Disemos rhythm, rest pending)

Boudouris says that ecclesiastical pieces can be chanted both "by-beat"("kata xronon") and "by-rhythm" ("kata rhythmon"). He argues that although pieces can be chanted beat by beat (monosimos), however, the pieces are not properly executed until the experienced psalti adds the rhythmic element in the interpetation. That is to aggregate the beats ("xronous") of the piece into groups ("podes") to form rhythms (as he says elsewhere in the definition of rhythm). He went on to say that the Patriarchal psaltai are exemplary for chanting by-rhythm and not by-beat.

K. Psaxos,
musicologist (Constantinople, early 1900s)
[pdf, 682 Kb]

Along the same lines is Psaxos' essay (read to the audience of the Musical Association of Constantinople more than 100 years ago, can be found on the analogion). Psaxos admits that was taught Byzantine music using "by-beat" counting, however his whole essay is an argument about why that was wrong and presents various examples to support "by-rhythm" chanting..

Fr. Ch. Oikonomou,
teacher (Cyprus, mid 1900s)
[pdf, 554 Kb]

S. Chourmouzios,
teacher (Cyprus, mid 1900s)
[pdf (a), 495 Kb] [pdf (b), 81 Kb]

Prof. A. Skias,
on Ancient Greek "Metrike" (Cyprus, mid 1900s)
[pdf (a) , 1 Mb] [pdf (b), 2 Mb]

G. Athanasopoulos,
teacher (Patras, mid 1900s)
[pdf, 212 Kb]

A. Valindras,
teacher (Athens, mid 1900s)
[pdf, 626 Kb]

D. Panagiotopoulos,
teacher (Athens, mid 1900s)
[pdf, 159 Kb] (page 65, on counting)

A. Afthemiadis,
Archon Music Teacher of the Great Church (Thessaloniki, late 1900s)
[pdf, 810 Kb]

S. Karas,
musicologist (Athens, late 1900s)
[pdf, 760 Kb]

D. Nerantzis
(late 1900s)
[zip, 235 Kb]
In his book he argues in favour of "by-beat" chanting, and calls it "counting in monos chronos".

N. Tomadakis
(late 1900s)
[zip, 500 Kb]
Chapter from his book "The Byzantine hymnography".

Th. Xydis
(late 1900s)
[zip, 650 Kb]
Chapter from his book "The Byzantine hymnography".