Initial Martyria

Hello guys, this is my first post. Greetings! :)

I'm having trouble understanding some of the beginning martyria. (I attached an image below so that you can see what I mean.)

1) Why is the initial martyria of the third mode written with a nana chair (#1 in the file) in some books and with the symbol Γ " + two oligons + kentemata (#2) in other books? I know that the two oligons with kentemata is supposed to mean that the base note of the mode is three steps above Δι. Some psaltai told me that the second version is something that Simon Karas came up with. Is that true? Which one of the two is the more traditional (and most correct) one?

2) When am I supposed to write the martyria of the third mode with a continuous elaphron next to it (#3) and when not?

3) Same goes for Grave Mode. I've seen here two versions too: an oligon + deeplee + grave martyria underneath (#4) and an oligon + kentemata + grave martyria (#5) underneath. Can someone explain to me when to use the one or the other? And again - if this is a martyria that Simon Karas came up with which is the most correct one?

Thanks in advance.

In Christ,
tranastionetrimpr
 

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Hi tranastionetrimpr, I'm not an expert, so I don't know the answers to most of your questions, but I can try to give some information on the second one.

"2) When am I supposed to write the martyria of the third mode with a continuous elaphron next to it (#3) and when not?"

This martyrion is used for melodies following the prosomion "Η Πάρθενος Σήμερον" (Today the Virgin) since the base of this hymn, although it is in Third Mode, is set on ΠΑ (by classical melodists). I don't believe it is used otherwise, but perhaps someone with a better background can confirm that.

Panagiotis G.
 

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Hi tranastionetrimpr, I'm not an expert, so I don't know the answers to most of your questions, but I can try to give some information on the second one.

"2) When am I supposed to write the martyria of the third mode with a continuous elaphron next to it (#3) and when not?"

This martyrion is used for melodies following the prosomion "Η Πάρθενος Σήμερον" (Today the Virgin) since the base of this hymn, although it is in Third Mode, is set on ΠΑ (by classical melodists). I don't believe it is used otherwise, but perhaps someone with a better background can confirm that.

Panagiotis G.

Sometimes it's simply used to indicate that the note of a previous melodic line ended on Pa.

For instance, verses in 3rd mode (both heirmologic and sticheraric) end on Pa. However, this verse might not always be written. So, to remind the chanter that the melody will be beginning from the note Pa (of the previous implied verse), the 3rd Mode initial martyria from Ga will be paired with a syneches elaphron indicating that descent to Pa from which the piece will be beginning.
 
I know this is an old question, but in case someone else comes looking for the same question, here's information about 1 and 3.

In regards to question 1, both modal signatures were already in use before the New Method. See the below table under III (Tritos) and IV Pl. Nana.

1680566308643.png

They are both derived from the medieval practice of writing the Greek numeral (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) under the last neumes of the mode's intonation. Over time, scribes started omitting the full intonation and just writing the Greek numeral with the last one or two neumes above it.

1680566700860.png

In the case of "nana", this actually comes from the two stylized letter "n"s that appear in the intonation syllables.The dots above it used to be isons, but over time they were simplified to dots.

1680567201082.png1680567244743.png

For question 3, both versions were in use in the old notation, as well. Some scribes reduced the kentimata to mere dots, while others, kept the longer kentimata.

1680567346422.png

If this kind of information interests you, this book has some good history about the old notation: Byzantine Neumes: A New Introduction to the Middle Byzantine Musical Notation. (Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, Subsidia vol. 9.) by Christian Troelsgård.
 
Hello guys, this is my first post. Greetings! :)

I'm having trouble understanding some of the beginning martyria. (I attached an image below so that you can see what I mean.)

1) Why is the initial martyria of the third mode written with a nana chair (#1 in the file) in some books and with the symbol Γ " + two oligons + kentemata (#2) in other books? I know that the two oligons with kentemata is supposed to mean that the base note of the mode is three steps above Δι. Some psaltai told me that the second version is something that Simon Karas came up with. Is that true? Which one of the two is the more traditional (and most correct) one?

2) When am I supposed to write the martyria of the third mode with a continuous elaphron next to it (#3) and when not?

3) Same goes for Grave Mode. I've seen here two versions too: an oligon + deeplee + grave martyria underneath (#4) and an oligon + kentemata + grave martyria (#5) underneath. Can someone explain to me when to use the one or the other? And again - if this is a martyria that Simon Karas came up with which is the most correct one?

Thanks in advance.

In Christ,
Vlad
For number 4 and 5, they are the same Initial Martyria of Varys: it's just that the Kentemata became two dots.

For number 1, it is Pthora Nana. It should take the phthora of the Plagal of the Fourth above the Ga, but the Pthora of the Third below, it is a double mode, combining Echos Tritos below, and Echos Plagios tou Tetartou above. You should use it for Herouvika in Echos Tritos.

Number 2, it is the Diatonic Echos Tritos. Used for the sticheraric and heirmologic.

Number 3, it is Echos Mesos tou Tritou. More rarely used, it behaves pretty much like Echos Plagios tou Protou and like Echos Protos Eso. Usually used for certain Prosomoia, but not mandatory.
 
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